The Ultimate Guide to CBD Products

Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound produced by the cannabis plant, is quickly growing in popularity and headed toward mainstream acceptance. CBD is finding its way into a variety of products, from tinctures and drops to CBD-infused edibles and CBD balms, as well as a wide range of cosmetics. CBD oil is even becoming popular among pet owners who wish to help their pets live healthier lives.
With that clarified, let’s delve into The Ultimate Guide to CBD Products. But first we have to publish a medical disclaimer.


This product is not for use by or sale to persons under the age of 18. This product should be used only as directed on the label. It should not be used if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult with a physician before use if you have a serious medical condition or use prescription medications. A doctor’s advice should be sought before using this and any supplemental dietary product. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

This CBD guide contains information that will help you make educated decisions about why and how to use CBD products. It is not intended to provide medical advice.

It’s important that the reader seek the advice of a qualified medical professional who is well versed in CBD education before beginning use.


How to Use This Guide to CBD Products

This Ultimate Guide to CBD Products is broken up into 8 chapters:

  1. A short history of Cannabinoids
  2. CBD Basic Information
  3. CBD Products and Your Health
  4. Research Studies on CBD Products
  5. Administering CBD
  6. Getting Started with CBD
  7. Conclusions
  8. Frequently Asked Questions

In Chapter 1. A short history of Cannabinoids we’ll give you some interesting information about the history of Cannabinoids . 

In Chapter 2. CBD Basic Information we’ll discuss some basic information about CBD, such as what it is and where it comes from. We’ll also provide answers to some of the most frequent questions asked by new CBD users.

In Chapter 3. CBD Products and Your Health we’ll go into some detail about some of the ingredients in CBD oil and how they affect the human body.

In Chapter 4. Research Studies on CBD we’ll delve into the potential health benefits of CBD.

In Chapter 5. Administering CBD we’ll go over some of the products that contain CBD oil and the ways in which you could use CBD oil.

In Chapter 6. Getting Started with CBD we’ll get you started by providing some advice on how to choose the right product for your needs and how to find a trustworthy source.

In Chapter 7. Conclusions you’ll find an overview of what you’ve learned by reading The Ultimate Guide to CBD.

In Chapter 8. Frequently Asked Questions we’ll answer the questions people have about CBD products.

The information in the first four chapters of this guide falls under the heading of “good to know” but if you’re anxious to get started, you can go ahead and read “Chapter 6. Getting Started with CBD”.

If you’ve already started using CBD or have purchased some CBD products, we recommend that you read this guide from start to end. You’ll get the proper information about:

  • having the right CBD product 
  • learn how to use it properly
  • determine how much you should be taking. 

Ultimate Guide to CBD Products Chapter 1:
A short history of Cannabinoids

Cannabis has a long and storied past. However, just a quarter of a century ago, no one had ever heard of CBD. Nowadays, modern science has identified a class of molecules known as cannabinoids, along with the human endocannabinoid system. Through human studies, we are only beginning to understand how cannabinoids affect the body.

The history of Cannabis in Ancient Times 

The earliest reported mention of use of cannabis in ancient China is around 6000 BC, shortly after the rise of human civilisation. But the closest evidence of use of cannabis for wellness starts to emerge around 2700 BC.

In 2737 BC, as documented in the first editions of the Pen Ts'ao Ching, the Chinese emperor Shen-Nung used cannabis in topical salves and teas.

As time passed and human civilisation evolved, writings promoting the benefits of the hemp plant appeared in pharmaceutical journals throughout Asia.

The use of extracts of cannabis emerged in the writings of Hua Tuo in the second century BC.

Around 77 AD, the Romans began to use hemp plant extracts extensively for medicinal purposes. In his notebooks, a scientist known as Pliny the Elder claimed that an extract of cannabis was helpful in reducing feelings of discomfort.

In India, cannabis was considered a sacred plant, gifted by the deities. The Atharaveda was considered a reservoir of wisdom useful for everyday life. In this manuscript, the use of the flowers and seeds of cannabis are described in great detail in a variety of balms and tinctures.

Cannabis has been found buried in the tombs of Ancient Greeks and Egyptians who also notated formulations for cannabis remedies.

The history of CBD in the UK

In the 16th century, cannabis was cultivated throughout Europe. At this time, the hemp plant was so valuable to society that in 1533, Henry VIII made it a requirement for all peasants to grow hemp.

Garcia de Orta and Li Shih-Chen were doctors who advised the use of hemp extract to aid appetite and maintain well-being.

In the 1600s, North American colonies began to cultivate hemp. Farmers in Virginia were even forced by law to grow hemp. Similar laws were passed in Massachusetts and Connecticut. In Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, hempseed was used as legal tender.

Robert Burton wrote the "Anatomy of Melancholy", a popular medical paper on the usefulness of hemp extract in supporting moods.

In the 18th century, "The New England Dispensatory" and "Edinburgh New Dispensatory'' - two highly respected pharmacopeias in these days - both documented the uses of hemp. 

Irish doctor William B. O'Shaughnessy brought cannabis to the attention of the UK. He joined the British East India Company to conduct his medical studies. As a part of his studies, he researched the use of cannabis to reduce the effects of disease symptoms. He experimented on animals and humans to determine the tolerance factor of cannabis. He also carried out research to determine the effects of hemp extracts on people who suffered from rheumatic diseases, cholera, tetanus and hydrophobia.

In 1843, O'Shaughnessy returned to Britain with a quantity of cannabis. His research findings, which he published in scientific journals, were considered controversial. There were medical claims that prompted further research, discovering CBD and THC.

In 1890, cannabis was used for medical purposes, including menstrual cramps. For example, Queen Victoria was prescribed a cannabis tincture by the royal family doctor Sir J. Russel Reynolds to relieve her menstrual pain.

With the invention of hypodermic needles and the discovery of drugs such as aspirin, the use of cannabis in the medical world was no longer interesting. Aspirin and vaccinations replaced this.

The history of CBD in the Early 20th Century

At the beginning of the 20th century, pharmaceuticals such as opioids started to be developed. The use of cannabis based preparations was starting to decline. However, many medicines were developed that combined cannabis with other pharmaceutical substances in applications ranging from cough syrup to sleep medicines.

Towards the end of the 1930s, the war on cannabis broke out and it became unlawful to produce cannabis. In 1970, the possession of any form of cannabis was banned by the Controlled Substances Act, which placed cannabis - both hemp and marijuana - on the list of Schedule I substances that have no medicinal benefits and pose a high risk of dependency.

In the late 1960s, researchers discovered the role of the human endocannabinoid system in maintaining good health. In the 1970s, cannabis was again used for medical treatment. 

In 1998, the British government contracted GW Pharmaceuticals for clinical research of cannabis. Dr. Geoffrey Guy, the co-founder of GW, was convinced that plants rich in CBD could be an effective medicine for health problems without having a psychoactive side effect.

The Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 sets out the legal rules for the cultivation and use of cannabis and CBD in the UK. These regulations describe the import, export, delivery, possession, prescribing and maintenance of records. A distinction is made between raw cannabis and THC and plant-based CBD.

Raw cannabis and THC are considered drugs as they have no therapeutic or medical value in the UK, as THC is responsible for the psychoactive effect of cannabis.

Specific criteria have been drawn up for the use of plant-based CBD. For example, the CBD should not be extracted from the flowering and fruiting top. Plant-based CBD should also not contain specific regulated cannabinoids.

Today, CBD oil is one of the fast-growing industries in the UK. There are still a few rules that need to be followed. For example, there should be no controlled substances such as THC and CBD in CBD oil. You also need a permit if you grow and/or possess cannabis. Hemp-based CBD products have not yet been licensed, but they can be sold in the UK as long as they are not advertised as medicine.



It is important that readers seek the advice of a qualified medical professional well versed in CBD education before beginning use.

Ultimate Guide to CBD Products Chapter 2:
CBD Basic Information

In this chapter, we will provide basic information about CBD and cannabis. You can read here what CBD is, where it comes from and how it is produced. We will also answer some of the most frequently asked questions about CBD.

ULTIMATE GUIDE TO CBD PRODUCTS - oil and tinctures - pairidaeza-health

The Cannabis Plant 

Cannabis is a member of a family of plants known as Cannabaceae. There are two primary species of the cannabis plant that are cultivated for human consumption, namely Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa.

Sativa plants are longer and produce more fibre than the indica plant. This is why they are mainly used for the cultivation of hemp. 

Indica plants are shorter and bushier and less suitable for industrial or commercial cultivation, but very suitable for the production of medicinal marihuana.

What are the differences between Hemp and Marijuana? 

Marijuana contains delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is a psychoactive substance that gets people high. Marijuana is rightly considered a "drug" and is grown primarily for medicinal and "recreational" purposes. 

Hemp is not Marijuana

Hemp is not marijuana. The amount of THC from the hemp plant is negligible. According to the law, hemp may be grown containing less than 0.3% THC. 

Hemp is also an industrial crop whose fibres are used for textiles, building materials and even for insulating houses. Industrial hemp contains relatively small concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes, so it is unsuitable for medicinal or recreational CBD.

While many of the CBD products on the market come from this type of industrial hemp, our CBD products are made from a CBD-rich strain known as PCR hemp. PCR is short for phytocannabinoid rich - it contains as much as ten times the concentration of CBD as generic industrial hemp. Because the amount of THC is negligible, it does not cause a high.

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Types of CBD Products

Now let's look at some of the types of CBD products and compare their qualities. It is key to remember that as the industry grows, some of these terminologies have changed.

CBD from PCR Hemp VS. CBD from Marijuna

CBD products can be extracted from marijuana in the same way as they can be extracted from hemp. The derivatives made from marijuana are called cannabis. Marijuana extracts may contain some CBD, but contain enough THC to induce a high. Any such extracts of marijuana remain illegal in the UK according to The Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001.

In this guide to CBD, we only discuss CBD products made from PCR hemp. We are not concerned with THC-containing cannabis oils made from marijuana, nor with extracts from industrial hemp that contain low levels of cannabinoids and terpenes.


Raw CBD vs CBD Concentrate

When the hemp plant's essential oils are first extracted, the resulting product is considered to be raw hemp extract. This extract can be submitted to a series of filtration and distillation processes to eliminate undesirable components, such as wax and chlorophyll, and yield various classes of oils that differ in purity and CBD content. These processed oils are called CBD concentrate or CBD distillate.

What is Full Spectrum CBD?

We previously mentioned another class of compounds called terpenes. Raw PCR hemp extract contains terpenes, as well as some other cannabinoid compounds that are similar to CBD. Because it preserves the natural balance of cannabinoids and terpenes of the primordial plant, we call these broad-spectrum CBD products.

What is Broad Spectrum CBD?

Broad spectrum CBD products are akin to a full spectrum product. Full spectrum CBD, as we said, preserves the original concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes found in the raw PCR hemp extract.

Broad spectrum CBD products also have these concentrations of beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes, but traces of THC have been removed. This makes it ideal for people who want absolutely no THC in their CBD products.

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What is CBD Isolate?

CBD can be isolated and purified. Pure CBD is known to the industry as a CBD isolate. In its pure form and at room temperature, cannabinoids are solid crystals: they are colourless and odourless. CBD isolate can be directly consumed or used as an added component in other preparations such as edibles and beverages. Unfortunately, CBD isolate is deprived of the wholesome terpenes and other cannabinoids that occur naturally in this plant.

What is CBD-Rich Oil/ Phytocannabinoid-rich (PCR)?

Another term sometimes mentioned is CBD-rich oil. This term refers to a CBD oil that has undergone a number of initial filtration and distillation steps in order to be purified of chlorophyll and wax. This filtration results in products that have a higher concentration of CBD than the crude extract, hence the name CBD-rich oil.

What is CBD-Infused Oil?

CBD-infused means a product infused with purified CBD isolate or a product infused with a CBD-rich, full spectrum or broad spectrum concentrate.  By law, any CBD product will list the ingredients on the label.

If it states "CBD isolate", then the product is not full spectrum. If the ingredients include "CBD-rich hemp oil (or extract)" or "full/broad spectrum CBD oil" , then you have a full/broad spectrum CBD product. We recommend that you always read the label so that you know what the product consists of and what benefits it provides.

A list of CBD Products

In summary, there are several CBD products that contain varying levels of CBD, as well as other cannabinoids and terpenes.

  • Hemp seed oil — Oil produced from hemp seeds, does not contain CBD.
  • Raw industrial hemp extract — A poor quality source for CBD products.
  • Raw PCR hemp extract — A high-quality, full- or broad-spectrum product that is CBD rich and contains the substances naturally present in hemp, including cannabinoids and terpenes.
  • CBD concentrate or distillate — A full- or broad-spectrum product from which any unwanted components have been removed.
  • CBD isolate — Purified CBD which contains no other beneficial terpenes and cannabinoids.
  • CBD-rich oil/Phytocannabinoid-rich (PCR) — Either a full-spectrum or broad-spectrum CBD concentrate or an oil infused with a CBD concentrate.
  • Broad spectrum oil — An oil that is rich in CBD as well with the beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes present in hemp, excluding THC.
  • CBD-infused — Refers to a product infused with pure CBD, but is sometimes used to refer to a full spectrum product.

Having clarified these terms, we will answer some of the most frequent questions asked by CBD users who are first time users of CBD.

Frequently asked questions from first time users of CBD 

Surprisingly, CBD oil is a complicated product. The current CBD market can be compared to the Wild West. There is a fair amount of incorrect information floating about CBD, which of course causes a lot of confusion.

One of the main points of confusion comes from the fact that the media often uses the term marijuana to refer to hemp and vice versa. This raises other questions, such as "does CBD cause a high?" and "are there any side effects from using CBD?". Let's briefly answer each of these questions so that we can clear up misinformation about CBD products.

Does one get high from CBD Product? 

No, CBD oil would not get you high. When properly produced, the hemp from CBD products will not contain THC in such high concentrations to get you high.

THC acts on certain receptors in the brain, altering brain chemistry and thereby altering consciousness. CBD does not activate these receptors. CBD could even prevent the brain from responding to THC.

Some manufacturers produce CBD products that may contain traces of THC. Joy Organics CBD products are produced using a technology that extracts THC while leaving the other cannabinoids and terpenes intact.

It is important to note that every person is different and that CBD can cause drowsiness if you use a particularly large amount of a CBD product in one sitting.

What are the side effects of CBD? 

Medicines are often developed to target certain body systems and produce certain effects, Mother Nature is not always so demanding. The effects of organic compounds can be many and can vary from person to person. Often, herbal compounds have both desired effects and undesired effects. These undesirable effects are called negative side effects.

To determine the unwanted side effects, you need to know what the desired effects are. The effects that are desired by one user may be undesired by another. Therefore, determining side effects can be difficult.

Let's look at an example of how CBD can work for different people. Some people use CBD products to support a good night's sleep, but then feel sleepy during the day. If you want to feel alert and awake during the day, as most people want, sleepiness is an undesirable side effect.

Will CBD Make Me Drowsy?

CBD has what is called biphasic properties. We'll discuss this more in Chapter 4, but this means that CBD oil can have different effects depending on how much you use. If you stick to the recommended amount, CBD is unlikely to cause drowsiness. However, if you use CBD in larger amounts, there is a possibility that it could make you drowsy. 


Alcohol is a perfect example of a substance with biphasic properties. Below a certain blood level, alcohol has a stimulating effect and can make the user more active and social, while larger amounts of alcohol can have a depressant effect that can cause unconsciousness.


Ultimate Guide to CBD Products Chapter 3:
CBD Products and Wellness

Cannabinoids are molecules found in the cannabis plant. Cannabidiol is abbreviated to CBD, such as THC for tetrahydrocannabinol, CBG for cannabigerol, CBN for cannabinol, and so on. THC belongs to the cannabinoid family - it is found in marijuana and causes a high. Later in this guide, we'll discuss some other cannabinoids.

What are endocannabinoids?

Cannabinoids are substances produced by cannabis plants that are responsible for the health benefits of cannabis. Cannabinoids found in plants are also known as phytocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids are cannabinoids produced by the human body.

  • Phytocannabinoids — Cannabinoids produced by plants.
  • Endocannabinoids — Cannabinoids produced by human or other mammal bodies.

Other cannabinoids found in PCR hemp are cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG). Cannabichromene (CBC) is the third most abundant cannabinoid in cannabis. Like CBD, cannabichromene is non-psychoactive. Cannabigerol (CBG) is produced by young hemp plants. Both CBC and CBG are believed to have properties similar to those of CBD.

What do endocannabinoids do? 

Endocannabinoids are neurotransmitters that are naturally produced by our bodies. Hormones are also neurotransmitters.

Our nervous system produces neurotransmitters as a result of how you feel, how healthy you are and what environment you are in. Neurotransmitters work together with receptors in our body to become active when needed. This means that cells respond differently to each type of neurotransmitter.

The nervous system and the brain are connected by a network of sensors. If it is determined that part of the network in our body is out of balance, the nervous system produces neurotransmitters, which travel through the bloodstream and connect with receptors on cells. The neurotransmitters instruct these receptors to adapt their behavior, bringing the body back into balance: realizing a homeostasis.

The human endocannabinoid system (ECS) 

Now that we understand how neurotransmitters work, let's take a look at the role of cannabinoids and their role in supporting homeostasis, a state of equilibrium, in the body.


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The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of two components. For example, we have endocannabinoid receptors that are found on the surface of cells throughout the body. In addition, we have endocannabinoids that interact with the receptors.

Anandamide is an endocannabinoid responsible for the production and absorption of serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that has a major influence on your mood, which is why it is often referred to as the "happiness molecule". Serotonin is responsible for 'runner's high'.

The endocannabinoid system in our body is huge. This system regulates many bodily functions, from appetite to sleep, moods, metabolism, immune response, cell life and much more.

List of Common Cannabinoids

Below is a list of the most common cannabinoid molecules found in cannabis.

  • Cannabidiol (CBD) — The second most common cannabinoid produced by the cannabis plant that is non-psychotropic (it doesn’t get you high).
  • Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) — The primary psychoactive compound in marijuana that gives users a feeling of euphoria.
  • Cannabichromene (CBC) — This third most common cannabinoid, also non-psychoactive, is thought to support mood and joint and muscle function.
  • Cannabinol (CBN) — Believed to support joint and muscle function and aid a good night’s rest.
  • Cannabigerol (CBG) — Non-psychoactive and used to support mood and joint and muscle function.
  • Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCv) — Less psychoactive than THC.
  • Cannabidivarin (CBDv) — Similar to CBD in its effects.
  • Delta(8) THC — Similar to delta(9)-THC, less psychoactive and may support a relaxed mood.
  • THCa and CBDa — Compounds found in raw cannabis that are non-psychotropic.

What Are Terpenes?

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Terpenes are a class of volatile hydrocarbon compounds produced by the cannabis plant as well as most other plants. However, cannabis is currently the most terpene-dense plant known to humans. Terpenes readily evaporate at room temperature, and our noses are highly sensitive to them.

Terpenes are widely used as fragrances and flavors in consumer products such as perfumes, cosmetics and cleaning products, as well as food and drink products. For example, the aroma and flavor of hops comes, in part, from sesquiterpenes (mainly α-humulene and β-caryophyllene), which affect beer quality. They are also components of some traditional medicines, such as aromatherapy. Some form hydroperoxides that are valued as catalysts in the production of polymers. (Source: Wikipedia)

Although terpene molecules are all very similar, each has its own unique scent and flavor. Various combinations of terpenes are responsible for the distinct aromas of cannabis strains.

Terpenes can also have powerful effects on our bodies. In fact, terpenes have been utilized by humans for millennia in what’s commonly known as aromatherapy.

For example, the scent of citrus is produced primarily by a combination of limonene and pinene, both of which are thought to elevate mood.

Some common terpenes include linalool, myrcene, caryophyllene, limonene, terpinolene, citronellol, and camphene. The traditional uses of these terpenes and others vary, but they include use as support for muscle and joint function, mood, and overall wellness.

In cannabis, terpenes are produced in the highest concentrations in the plant’s female flowers. Terpenes also act on cannabinoid receptors and are known to modify the effects of cannabinoids.

The Entourage Effect

Although not as potent as cannabinoids in terms of their overall benefits, terpenes are valuable components of cannabis.

The overall effect of the rich combination of cannabinoids and terpenes is known as the entourage effect. In the case of cannabis, these cannabinoids and terpenes work together to produce a wide range of benefits, which is thought to be greater than the sum of its individual components.

More research is needed to determine the exact role that terpenes play in the overall effects of CBD oil, but it seems clear that terpenes work in concert with cannabinoids to produce a richer effect than CBD alone.

As we mentioned earlier, some CBD oil products are actually oil infused with pure CBD. These products do not have the added benefits of terpenes and other cannabinoids and do not produce the entourage effect. They are not recommended.

Ultimate Guide to CBD Products Chapter 4:
What Are the Benefits of CBD Products?

In little more than half a century, cannabinoids have gone from being obscure to the subject of intense research.

The secrets of cannabinoids are many, and they run deep. After years of study, there is still very little known about how cannabinoids interact with the endocannabinoid system and other complex organs and systems in our bodies.

But one thing is for sure - CBD does have an effect on these complex systems that are not fully understood themselves. Identifying the exact mechanisms that trigger the wide range of effects of CBD may take many decades.

Let us now look at some of the research that has been conducted over the past few decades into the mechanisms and effects of cannabinoids and the ECS.

History of CBD Research

In 1968, a report by the British government's Advisory Committee on Drug Addiction stated that "the long-term use of cannabis in moderate doses has no harmful effects...Cannabis is less dangerous than the opiates, amphetamines and barbiturates, and less dangerous than alcohol...". That same year, the University of Mississippi was commissioned to grow marijuana for research by the agency that preceded the DEA.

In 1970, the United States declared marijuana to be a Class I substance with a high abuse potential and no medicinal value. Two years later, in 1972, a report based on a comprehensive study by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare recommended that marijuana should be removed from the classification system and its use should be decriminalised. Then-President Richard Nixon rejected these recommendations.

In a 1976 lawsuit, a federal judge ruled that a plaintiff in a lawsuit filed against the government used marijuana out of "medical necessity," making the plaintiff, Robert Randall, the first legal medical cannabis patient.

As a direct result of the lawsuit, in 1978 the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) began providing cannabis to several patients whose doctors applied for and received "compassionate use" rights under the rules for Investigational New Drug Applications (IND). Most of the medical research on cannabis has taken place in the 40 years since 1978.

The human endocannabinoid system has been discovered in stages. In 1988, the first cannabinoid receptor was found in a rat brain. In 1992, researcher Raphael Mechoulam and NIMH researchers William Devane and Dr Lumir Hanus identified the first endocannabinoid. These findings led to a wave of new studies on the effects of cannabinoids.

In the UK, the Administration of drugs classified cannabis in Schedule 2.

In 2021, a great deal of research is being conducted, and many studies on the effects of cannabis and CBD on the human body have been published. For example, the Department of Surgery and Cancer of the Imperial College  Londen, is researching the development of novel cannabinoid therapies for cancer and pain relief treatments. 

According to Center of Medicinal Cannabis Research in the UK, new research findings will stimulate the pharmaceutical investment in CBD as a medical
treatment. Areas that look promising for a pure CBD treatment relate to sleep disorders and insomnia, as well as anxiety, inflammation and pain.


What We’ve Learned About CBD

CBD’S effects on mood

CBD is widely used to support emotional stability. Research is showing that CBD has an effect on levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, which we mentioned earlier. Anandamide is released by the nervous system to stimulate the uptake of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin is often called the "happiness molecule" because of its ability to improve mood.

When you have a low mood, you may be experiencing low levels of serotonin. An uptick in serotonin can correspond to an increase in feelings of well-being. It all relates to the endocannabinoid system - a balanced ECS is a happy ECS.

CBD's effects on sleep

One other common reason people use CBD oil is to help them create regular healthy sleep cycles. It's no secret that a bad night's sleep usually results in a bad mood the next day, and no one wants that. When CBD is taken before you go to bed, it can actually help you roll out of bed refreshed and energetic the next day.

Ultimate Guide to CBD Products Chapter 5:
Using CBD Products

In this chapter we will look at a few of the methods by which CBD is used. We discuss some of the factors that go into deciding on a portion size. We also will take a look at the pros and cons of each method and discuss which methods are more beneficial for different situations.

Bioavailability of CBD

Not all of the methods of using CBD are created equal. Their effectiveness not only depends on the method of consumption and the ingredients in the product, but also on the bioavailability of the CBD that is provided with each method.

The bioavailability of an active ingredient is the percentage of a given serving that is actually available to your body to utilize.

In the case of CBD oil, the active ingredients include both cannabinoids and terpenes. But for the sake of discussion, we will only talk about the bioavailability of CBD itself. 

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A bioavailability of 100% would mean that 100% of the CBD in the product is available to your body. The only way to achieve 100% bioavailability is through intravenous administration - that is, an injection directly into the bloodstream.

Any other method of consumption will result in a certain percentage of the CBD not available to the body for various reasons, such as being trapped in fatty tissue or being metabolised (broken down) before it has a chance to enter the bloodstream.

Each method of CBD oil consumption has a certain range of bioavailability. We will discuss these factors below and also cover them when discussing the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Bioavailability of CBD tinctures

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A CBD tincture is an oil that has been infused with CBD. CBD oil tinctures are taken by mouth. With this method, the CBD in the tincture is absorbed quickly and easily.

CBD in tinctures 10 to 40% more bioavailable than in edibles.

How long does CBD oil take to take effect? 

There are several important factors that come into play when determining the time to take effect when it comes to various methods of using CBD oil. Some of these variables are related to CBD itself, and others are related to how the human body reacts to CBD.

Because of unique genetics, no two people react to CBD oil in the same way. Furthermore, factors such as age, health, weight, circulation, and metabolism can all affect the timing of the effects of CBD oil.

A factor that can be influenced by all of the above is the number of cannabinoid receptors in the body, how they are expressed and the ability of the body to produce endocannabinoids. An individual who expresses more receptors or produces fewer endocannabinoids may be more sensitive to CBD than someone with an abundance of endocannabinoids or a lack of receptors.


woman eating a CBD gummy


There are also numerous other factors involved, such as the type of product being used, how it’s being used, and how much is being used. The onset of edibles will typically take longer than that of tinctures, for example.

As we mentioned, the effects of inhaled CBD are virtually instantaneous. Edibles and capsules can range anywhere from 20 minutes to over an hour, while tinctures can take up to 20 minutes.

These figures are to be considered general guidelines and will vary from person to person, as we mentioned above.

CBD serving suggestions

As with bioavailability and time to take effect, the ideal serving of CBD depends on a variety of factors including the product being used, the concentration of the CBD in the product, genetic makeup, sex, weight and so on.

Some CBD products list a suggested serving size. However, without taking into account all of the variables, the recommended serving size might be far too small or possibly even too high. In particular, the serving size will vary greatly depending on why it’s being used.

A serving that is appropriate for one product might be much different than that of a similar product. This is because various CBD oil products contain varying amounts of CBD. Whereas one product might contain 10mg of CBD per serving, another might contain 50mg per serving.

However, the most important factor to be considered is that both serving size and duration of use depend largely on the effect you are interested in when you use CBD products. One person might simply be using CBD to support general wellness, while another might be using CBD to help maintain a good night’s rest.

Another factor to be considered is whether or not the product being used contains a full spectrum or broad spectrum CBD oil with terpenes. Due to the entourage effect, these types of products reportedly work more effectively than just CBD alone.

Given all of the above-listed factors, determining your ideal serving of CBD requires some thinking. Taking too little CBD will not produce the desired effect and will be a waste of time and money. Alternatively, taking more CBD than you need may not make the benefits of CBD stronger. It will take some experimentation to determine an ideal serving of CBD for a particular person.

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However, the most important factor to be considered is that both serving size and duration of use depend largely on the effect you are interested in when you use CBD products. One person might simply be using CBD to support general wellness, while another might be using CBD to help maintain a good night’s rest.

Another factor to be considered is whether or not the product being used contains a full spectrum or broad spectrum CBD oil with terpenes. Due to the entourage effect, these types of products reportedly work more effectively than just CBD alone.

Guidelines for CBD servings

Here are some general guidelines for determining your ideal serving of CBD oil:

Stick with one product

It’s a good idea to put some thought into which CBD product you’re going to use and stick with that product for a while. This allows you to gauge the effects of that particular product. If you switch back and forth between different CBD products, determining a serving amount will be much harder.

Start with a low serving size

When you first begin using CBD oil, it’s a good idea to start with a low serving size. This gives you a chance to determine your body’s reaction to CBD. One option is to start with 1mg of CBD for every 20 pounds of weight. Using this rule, someone weighing 100 pounds should start with 5 milligrams of CBD, while someone weighing over 200 pounds can start with 10 milligrams of CBD, and so on.

Start before bedtime

When first using CBD oil, it’s best to start at night — about an hour before bedtime. That way, if CBD has a tendency to make you drowsy, you’re not dragging during the daytime. It’s uncommon for a low serving size of CBD to cause drowsiness, but it’s good to be sure.

If you have no issues, then take another serving in the morning. If CBD oil does make you sleepy, then take it at night. At the same time, CBD oil may be used to support both night time sleep and daytime focus, in which case CBD can be taken as needed throughout the day.

Don’t increase your serving size too fast

If all goes well, but you have not achieved your desired benefits, you can try doubling your servings of CBD. Each time you increase your serving size, take a few days to make note of how your body feels.

If a rise in serving size of CBD produces unwanted effects such as making you drowsy, back off to a lower serving.

Can you take too much CBD?

CBD is non-toxic. You would have to consume quite a bit of CBD before it results in any truly adverse health effects.

However, taking more CBD than needed might cause some unwanted effects such as making you too relaxed for particular activities like work or sports.

Once you have arrived at a particular serving of CBD based on the product you are using, it’s a good idea to stick with that product.

Ways of taking CBD products

Let’s now take a look at some of the ways to take CBD oil and the pros and cons of each, in order to help you to determine which CBD products are right for you.

Some of the factors that should be considered when determining which product is ideal for you are your lifestyle, the reasons you’re using CBD oil, the time to take effect and the bioavailability of the method.

Lifestyle considerations

In regards to lifestyle, some CBD products are more convenient than others, some products travel better than others, and some products are simply more enjoyable to use than others. Capsules are preferred for traveling, for instance. There’s nothing to drop and break or spill.

Use considerations

Certain methods are better for certain uses. For example, if you’re using CBD to support skin health, you can get it directly by using a topical product.

If you’re using a CBD product to support a good night’s rest, a special formulation such as CBD Softgels with Melatonin could be more beneficial than regular CBD softgels.

 ULTIMATE GUIDE TO CBD PRODUCTS- softgels, cbd oil, edibles, gummies -pairidaeza-health

If you’re using a CBD product to support a good night’s rest, a special formulation such as CBD Softgels with Melatonin could be more beneficial than regular CBD softgels.

Time considerations

As mentioned, various methods of use require different amounts of time to take effect. For example, CBD edibles can take upwards of an hour or more to take effect, whereas inhalation methods are virtually instantaneous.

Bioavailability considerations

Bioavailability, as we pointed out earlier, is the amount of CBD that actually makes its way into your bloodstream. If time is not a consideration, your main consideration should be value. CBD is not inexpensive, like products such as vitamins and minerals. You definitely want to try to maximize the value you get for your money.

If a CBD product has only 10% bioavailability, you’re essentially paying five times more for your CBD than if you used a product which has a 50% bioavailability.

Serving considerations of CBD products

Another consideration is how accurate you would like to be with your servings. It’s easy to gauge a serving when you’re taking capsules, for example, but much harder to gauge serving size when vaping since it depends on factors such as how much you inhale and how deeply you inhale it.

Can I give my Pet CBD? 

Yes, high-quality CBD is safe for pets. However, the size and energy level of your pet will determine the optimal amount. 

Some pets are fairly laid back and do not get a great deal of physical activity, while others are very energetic and have a significantly higher metabolism, so the impact of CBD may differ. It's usually a good idea to speak with a veterinarian familiar with CBD's use before giving your pet CBD products like CBD Dog Treats or Organic CBD Oil Tincture for Pets. 

ULTIMATE GUIDE TO CBD PRODUCTS- Can I give my Pet CBD -pairidaeza-health

With that knowledge, let’s take a closer look at the best uses, pros and cons of individual ways of taking CBD.

CBD Oils and tinctures

Earlier, we discussed the fact that there are a variety of products which makers refer to as CBD oil. These can include everything from raw hemp extract to more refined products to pure CBD-infused oil.

There are also a number of types of oil which are used as a base for CBD oil. Some CBD oil products also contain added ingredients such as additional terpenes, essential oils, and vitamins.

Joy Organics Organic CBD Oil in a beaker

Pros and cons of oils and tinctures

Tinctures are generally used at home in the morning and the evening, and can also be used at work if your situation allows it.

The downside of tinctures and oils is that they don’t travel well. They can be messy if you’re trying to use them on the go. They also generally come in a breakable bottle with a breakable dropper. If you’re looking for a product to take hiking, for example, tinctures are probably not your best choice.

CBD Oil Capsules

CBD oil capsules

CBD oil capsules are generally delivered orally. There are cases where you might want to puncture a capsule for use on the skin, but for the most part, this is an orally administered product.

Capsules are made with gelatin, which melts within minutes in your stomach and delivers the entire serving of CBD oil. This means that none of it will get absorbed into the tissues in your mouth or throat. And, depending on whether or not you take them with food, very little is likely to make its way through the rest of your digestive system.


Joy Organics softgels are formulated using a patent-pending water-soluble nanoemulsion technology which encapsulates the active compounds in nano-sized emulsions. The average size of nanoemulsion CBD oil droplets is between 4 and 200 times smaller than the industry standard.

This smaller size leads to much higher absorption in the blood and, therefore, results in extremely high bioavailability. Because of this, less nanoemulsion CBD oil is needed to produce the same results as regular CBD oil.

Pros and Cons of Capsules

As we mentioned, capsules, because they dissolve quickly, will deliver a serving of CBD directly into your stomach.


Joy Organics CBD Softgels on a table


Capsules are also very convenient and easy to use with no mess, and they also allow for exact serving sizes. If a CBD Softgels capsule contains 25 milligrams of CBD, assuming you’re using a reputable manufacturer with good production methods, you know you’re getting a serving of 25 milligrams of CBD.

One downside of capsules is that they take longer to feel the benefits. Also, as mentioned, when taken on an empty stomach very little of the CBD will make its way into your body as most of it will be directly absorbed into the lining of your stomach. But this is easily avoidable by taking the capsule with food.

It’s also important to note here that capsules that do not use nanoemulsions have far lower bioavailability than those that do contain nanoemulsions.

CBD-Infused Topicals

CBD topicalsCBD-infused topicals include skin creams, balms, salves, and oils. Once again, these products can be infused with pure CBD, or they can contain a PCR CBD oil.

The same rule applies — the products with the full or broad spectrum oils will contain other beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes.

Topicals often have a variety of additional beneficial ingredients meant to contribute to the overall benefits of CBD products. For example, skin creams may contain moisturizers, vitamin E, collagen, and so on.

Pain creams may contain anti-inflammatory ingredients meant to help the product penetrate deeper into tissues and aid in pain relief. Salves may contain other soothing and healing ingredients, such as aloe.

Pros and Cons of Topicals

Topicals (such as CBD Salve) are great for use on a particular area of skin or underlying muscles and joints. They deliver the CBD and other beneficial ingredients directly where they can do the most good.


woman rubbing Joy Organics CBD Salve onto shoulder


However, they take some time to apply and can be a little messy. This may not be a concern for you if you use these kinds of products regularly.

Another thing to consider is that, when taken internally either orally or inhaled, CBD will make its way to all areas of your body, including your skin. If overall skin health is your goal, you may just opt for one of those other applications rather than having to apply a topical all over your skin.

Which brings up a side note — when receiving a massage, generally, an oil is used on the entire body. This is a great opportunity to give your skin some extra love by adding some CBD oil to your massage oil.

Ultimate Guide to CBD Products Chapter 6:
Getting Started With CBD 

How to buy high-quality CBD products

The CBD market is currently expanding at a breakneck pace. Unfortunately, along with good companies, bad ones are trying to capitalize on the trend. Many of them will do anything to cut corners and increase profit margins. Some companies will use inferior and unsafe products. Some are completely dishonest, selling so-called CBD oil products that have negligible amounts of CBD in them, or even none whatsoever. Or, even worse, they could contain dangerous synthetic CBD.

CBD oil is not a product on which you should skimp on quality. You need a trusted manufacturer that makes CBD oil products that are rich in natural CBD and terpenes.

Also, a recent report by the FDA on CBD products found that many CBD products on the market do not contain the amount of CBD listed on the label.

With all these CBD oil producers flooding the market with new products, it can be difficult to know who to trust and where to find the highest quality CBD oil.

Identifying a good company 

There are a few factors that need to be considered when searching for a company that makes high-quality CBD oil products. These include the source and variety of hemp, the method of extraction used to produce the raw hemp extract, whether or not the company uses nanoemulsion technology, and the quality of the other ingredients in the products they offer.

The good news is that a reputable company will gladly provide this information. If it’s not touted on their website, then you can use their contact form to inquire about their hemp source, extraction method, and the source of other ingredients. If a company will not provide you with this information, then simply rule them out. There are plenty of respectable, high-quality CBD oil makers out there.

Preferred hemp sources

Hemp is farmed all over the world. The U.S. is only recently starting to rebuild its hemp industry after a century of prohibition. However, the U.S. produces some of the finest quality cannabis and hemp products in the world.

It’s important to understand that not all hemp is created equal. Industrial hemp is primarily grown for its seeds and fibers and is not bred to produce high levels of cannabinoids and terpenes. PCR hemp, on the other hand, was specifically cultivated to be rich in cannabinoids and terpenes.

In order for a CBD product that is made from industrial hemp to contain the same concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes as CBD oil made from PCR hemp, industrial hemp CBD must be further refined, removing or destroying many of the naturally occurring beneficial compounds.

If a manufacturer specifies that their CBD was extracted from industrial hemp, then it’s safe to assume that the product is either lower in CBD and terpenes than a product made with PCR hemp, or has been further processed and has lost some of its natural essence. Finding a company whose products are made with PCR hemp is highly desirable.

The lowest quality CBD oil products are usually produced in Asian countries such as China, where quality standards are far lower. CBD oil products produced in China are often made from strains of industrial hemp which are not rich in cannabinoids and terpenes. They are often extracted using cheaper methods that are harsh and can actually destroy cannabinoids and terpenes. They may contain toxic pesticides which are illegal in the U.S. or may be contaminated with molds and other biological toxins.

Quality of other ingredients

Although raw and refined pure hemp extract is available, the vast majority of CBD oil products contain additional ingredients such as vegetable oils or other essential oils.

All the rules mentioned above apply here. Products produced in the U.S. are preferred. Products produced in Western Europe may also be of high quality, and products made elsewhere are quite often of lower quality.

The ingredients used can also be telling when determining whether a company is trying to cut corners. Oils such as hemp seed oil, coconut oil, and almond oil are generally healthy and of high quality. If a product contains many ingredients that you can’t pronounce or that sound like harsh chemicals, then the manufacturer is probably trying to cut corners.

For example, a product known as polyethylene glycol is often used in CBD vape oils. This is the same stuff found in your car’s radiator. Although it has been FDA approved, there is evidence that it may irritate the lungs.

One exception to the can’t pronounce rule is an oil known as MCT oil. MCT stands for medium chain triglycerides. MCT oil is a natural product made from coconut oil. Coconut oil contains both medium- and long-chain triglycerides. Triglycerides, although sounding like a type of chemical, are simply the main constituent of human body fat. Without going into a biology lesson, let it suffice to say that MCTs are easier for the body to process than raw coconut oil.

There are other exceptions to the rule. When in doubt, just do an internet search on the ingredients in question, and you’ll usually be able to determine fairly quickly whether or not a particular ingredient is safe and healthy.

Quality testing

Another factor to consider is third-party lab testing. Most serious manufactures will send their products out to testing labs to determine whether or not they contain any contaminants and also to measure the levels of cannabinoids in the product.

Because different strains and crops produce different levels of CBD, CBD oil can vary in potency from one batch to another. Any good manufacturers will want to know exactly how much CBD is in their products.

Another thing that’s extremely important to know is whether the product contains THC. THC use may have serious consequences, so you should know whether your CBD product contains THC and in what amounts.

Many top manufacturers will provide the lab reports for the exact batch of products being sold. If one of the makers you are considering does offer this information, give them extra points.

CBD Oil health claims

This is worth touching on. Many companies will put CBD products on the market and make serious health claims about their product. These claims are not supported by the levels of scientific evidence required to be FDA approved. These claims are a strong sign that a company is exaggerating what its product can do. Avoid those products.

Finding a trusted manufacturer

Another way to narrow down your list of CBD oil makers is simply to do some internet research on CBD companies themselves. You’ll notice that some brand names will consistently be portrayed in a good light, while others might have an overabundance of bad reviews.

There are some smaller, more obscure companies which produce very high-quality CBD but may not have much in the way of reviews. Don’t necessarily rule them out. Use the methods above to determine if they will make the cut.

As we mentioned above, products produced in areas of the world other than the U.S. or Western Europe are usually of lower quality. There are plenty of great U.S. CBD oil producers to choose from, so it’s best to stick with U.S.-made products.

A word of the dangers of synthetic cannabinoids 

You may have heard on the news about some people in Utah becoming seriously ill as a result of using CBD products which contained synthetic CBD — that is CBD produced in a lab instead of in a hemp plant. We can’t stress enough how dangerous these products are. Stay away from them at all costs.

Ultimate Guide to CBD Products Chapter 7:

To wrap things up, let’s summarize the important points that you should take away from this document.

Set goals

It’s important to have some goals before you begin using CBD oil. For example, you may not be getting enough sleep, or you may be experiencing discomfort after working out. Determine the benefits of the CBD product you’re hoping to get so that you can make a decision as to whether or not it’s working for you.

Determine your serving

If you’re taking CBD products for health maintenance, you should be taking lower servings of CBD. Anything over 50 milligrams a day may be more than you need. You may only need 25 milligrams or less per day.

However, you may be using CBD for a reason other than wellness support and need a greater serving. Or you may be taking medications with which CBD will interact. There may be other considerations. You really need to discuss your decision with a qualified medical professional who is well-versed in the use of CBD in order to determine your ideal serving.

Choose a good company and stick with them 

Finding the right product for you from a high-quality maker is paramount. Once you choose a trusted brand and a particular product, stick with it for a while so that you can truly gauge its effectiveness.

We hope that you’ll take a good look at Joy Organics and consider us as your preferred source for high-quality CBD oil products. We use only PCR hemp to produce our CBD oil. We use only phytocannabinoid-rich oils in our products, extracted using supercritical CO2.

Our capsules, CBD Energy Drink Mix, and dog treats are made using water-soluble hemp extract powder, which gives these products a higher bioavailability than that of standard products. We use a patented process to extract all residual THC from our products, providing a 0.0% THC product. And we add only the highest quality ingredients to our products. Finally, all of our products undergo rigorous testing to ensure they are free from any kind of contamination and have accurate CBD levels.

Ultimate Guide to CBD Products Chapter 8:
Frequently asked questions about CBD

How long have people used cannabis? 

The Pen Ts’ao Ching mentions Chinese Emperor Shen-Nung using cannabis in ointments and teas. This literary work was documented in 2737 B.C. It’s recorded that cannabis came to America in the 1600s and was used as a form of currency by some of the early colony settlements.

What is CBD?

CBD is one of 100+ hemp-based compounds known as phytocannabinoids. These compounds are extracted from hemp and used in a variety of products. Popular CBD oil products include tinctures, gummies, and topicals.

How does CBD work? 

Phytocannabinoids interact with receptors connected to our endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system helps maintain homeostasis (balance) throughout the body. Millions use CBD oil every day to support joints, skin health, and mood!

What are the benefits of CBD oil? 

The endocannabinoid system influences many vital human functions, making CBD oil a versatile addition to anyone’s wellness plan. Potential benefits of CBD oil include maintaining heart health, promoting a balanced mood, post-exercise recovery, and more!

Will CBD products get me high? 

CBD is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid. THC is the phytocannabinoid in cannabis responsible for causing a high. Agriculture hemp contains 0.3% THC or less. Therefore, CBD oil shouldn’t cause a high.

What is the strongest CBD product? 

Pure CBD is known as CBD isolate. While CBD is beneficial on its own, it works better with other phytocannabinoids in the formula. This synergistic benefit is known as the entourage effect.

Each phytocannabinoid plays a unique role in maintaining homeostasis. Therefore a full spectrum of phytocannabinoids will promote entourage effect benefits.

Full spectrum CBD oil contains 0.3% THC or less. While it shouldn’t promote a high, some are still uncomfortable with the presence of THC.

Broad spectrum CBD oil removes THC from the formula but still has other phytocannabinoids that promote the entourage effect.

How much CBD oil should I use? 

CBD oil servings are dependent on a person’s weight, metabolism, and tolerance to CBD. Everyone has a different sensitivity to phytocannabinoids. So, it’s best to start with a low serving size and work your way up to an adequate serving that meets your particular needs.

How do you absorb a CBD product faster? 

CBD tinctures are the most efficient way to absorb CBD quicker. Edibles and softgels must go through the digestive system. Tinctures are absorbed in the mouth so that you can feel effects as early as 15-30 minutes.

At Joy Organics, we use nanoemulsion technology to extract our phytocannabinoids. This cutting-edge technology allows us to formulate the cannabis market’s smallest CBD particles, which improves the overall bioavailability of our phytocannabinoids.

How to choose a high-quality CBD product?

You don’t want anything grown with pesticides or contaminated with heavy metals. Make sure all products are third-party tested for purity. Reputable brands make lab reports easy to find for consumers.

Also, read the labels. Check that any other ingredient they use is organic. Artificial ingredients can dilute the potency of your CBD oil.

Which CBD product is right for me? 

One of the most popular ways to use CBD oil is with CBD tinctures. They’re fast-acting, versatile and taste great. Speaking of things that taste great, so do CBD gummies!

CBD softgels are also excellent for those new to CBD oil, as they are a more familiar method to many. At Joy Organics, we have formulas targeted for regulating sleep patterns by infusing our CBD oil with melatonin. We also have a heart and joint support formula that includes CBD oil with curcumin. Softgels and gummies both deliver precise serving sizes.

Meanwhile, CBD topicals are excellent for those who have skin or joint-related issues. Our skin has receptors that interact with the endocannabinoid system. These products allow for targeted care.

The WHO marks CBD as safe and well-tolerated, with many health benefits. Those interested in WHO CBD research and information, read more in the official report.